Firms have constrained access to external capital because of Buying firms have tightened their Supply Chain and suppliers have had difficulty in financing their operations to supply these larger firms. This difficulty to obtain funding can increase the cost of business and sometimes leads to bankruptcies and shortages. Large corporations have had to develop methods to finance their diverse and sometimes underfunded supply base.
World trade is projected to grow faster than US GDP. However, there is been a dramatic shift of trade flows into emerging markets that desperately need capital to supply the developed world. Small and medium-size businesses in these emerging markets are often underfunded (find citation). As their supply chains expand so does the need for abundant, low-cost financing. Non-investment-grade companies and small to medium enterprises (SME) find it difficult to finance their working capital requirements. The result is that there is a significant credit arbitrage between large firms in established markets and their suppliers. Working capital management is needed to become part of the buying firms consideration when developing suppliers. Working capital solutions can assist buyers to monetize these arbitrage opportunities while assisting their suppliers. But, only solutions that are mutually beneficial will work in the long run for buyers and suppliers. Buyers and suppliers typically have conflicting objectives, and strong buyers tend to take advantage of weaker suppliers.
Global supply chains have become increasingly complex and consist of numerous firms from all over the world. Financial infrastructures and had to develop to support these increasingly complex networks. Buying firms have tightened their Supply Chain and suppliers, especially small and medium-size enterprises and those from emerging economies, have had difficulty in financing their operations to supply these larger firms. This difficulty to obtain funding can increase the cost of business and sometimes leads to bankruptcies and shortages. Large corporations have had to develop methods to finance their diverse and sometimes underfunded supply base. Using supply chain finance tools has the potential to contribute €368 billion to Western European economies (COST Proposal, 2013) while reducing overall costs and decreasing supply chain disruption. This will also give access to finance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) and allow access to new export markets by making them more liquid.
There are three major flows in the supply chain: product, information, and financial. Most of the existing supply chain literature focused on the first two, and so far, only little attention has been paid to the financial side of supply chain management. While the focus of most of the literature is on the product flow and information flow, it is the financial flows that exert a strong influence on the definition of the structure of supply chains. In many cases the financial flows determine the structure and complexity of the supply chain. Typically, supply chains are not designed merely to facilitate product or information flows. Instead, they are designed to optimize the financial objectives of a single firm. Generally, the financial structures and issues drive the structure of the supply chain and operational methods.
A serious issue for firms is access to capital. Credit markets have improved considerably since the worst periods in early 2009, (Ciibank citation from Donna) McNamera) but it still is often difficult for a firm to obtain access to credit. Without access to capital a company cannot expand into new markets, fund research and development, or execute most any activity that requires investment.
Funds available to firms include (1) loans and other debt instruments such as corporate bonds, (2) equity funds via releasing and selling stock, or attracting new investment, or (3) reducing the cost of supply chain processes and utilizing the supply chain to increase revenues.
Because of the recent global recession, many firms have not had easy access to credit. As mentioned above there are limited sources of funds available to firms. Despite general easing in credit markets, many non investment grade companies and Small to Medum-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) continue to find it difficult to finance their working capital requirements.
The Basel III restrictions introduced in 2010 to be phased in over the next five years requires banks to create capital buffers which impacts bank capital requirements by requiring them to increase liquidity and reduce their leverage. Basel III has forced many small banks to cut back on loans to businesses. (Small Banks Are Blunt in Dislike of New Rules: WSJ – Aug 2012) These regulations in addition to a general move towards conservative capital management have forced companies to figure out how to find alternative methods of self funding their growth.
Also, the equity markets have not seen much growth in several industry sectors. For example, consumer packaged goods company products have sold well around the worl but their stock value – and therefore the value of the firms – CPG companies have not grown their stock price in the last years, thus investors will not fund them. Need citation Firms cannot really issue more equity because they generally do not want to dilute their stock holdings.
There is a significant credit arbitrage between large companies and their suppliers. Supply chain finance programs that allow for reverse factoring such as the Citibank or Orbian programs which are described later in the article can assist buyers to monetize this arbitrage while at the same time improving operations for their suppliers.